This category contains 11 posts

11) Pyschological Therapies – Cognitive Behavioural Therapy

CBT is based upon the assumptions of the cognitive model of abnormality which states that abnormally stems from incorrect thoughts and beliefs. The main type of CBT is Rational-Emotional Therapy (RET). This therapy was developed by Albert Ellis; he believed that by correcting irrational thoughts you can remove the abnormality. It has recently been renamed … Continue reading

10) Pyschological Therapies – Systematic Desensitisation

  Systematic Desensitisation (SD)   Systematic Desensitisation is based on the behavioural model of abnormality, particularly classical conditioning.   SD is normally used to treat anxiety and phobias, as behaviourists say these commonly result from classical conditioning.   SD involves gradually introducing the patient to their fear through a hierarchy of scenes and events, each … Continue reading

9) Psychological Therapies – Psychoanalysis

Psychoanalysis is based upon the psychodynamic model of abnormality. This states that abnormality is caused by repressed memories and thoughts in the subconscious. So in order to cure the abnormality, psychoanalysis aims to identify the repressed memory, and then by removing it from your subconscious, resolving the abnormality. There are three main stages of psychoanalysis; … Continue reading

8) Biological Therapies to treat Abnormality

There are two main biological therapies which are used to treat abnormality, Chemotherapy and ECT. Drug therapy (Chemotherapy) Within chemotherapy many types of drugs can be used to treat abnormality; antipsychotic, antidepressant and anti-anxiety drugs are a few. They work on the assumption that abnormality is caused by a chemical imbalance within the body. Antipsychotic … Continue reading

7) The Cognitive Model of Abnormality

The cognitive model of abnormality states that abnormalities in behaviour come from abnormal thinking processes.   There are two things the cognitive model says can cause abnormality, incorrect perception of reality and thinking, and incorrect processing of information. Incorrect perception of reality and thinking Think of the mind as a computer. We take in information … Continue reading

6) The Behaviour Model of Abnormality

This model, put forward by Behaviourists, explains abnormality through behaviour that we learn. Behaviourists believe that normal and abnormal behaviours are acquired as a result of experiences that we have in life. These behaviours are learnt in 3 ways, classical conditioning, operant conditioning and social learning theory. Classical conditioning – This is where we learn behaviour … Continue reading

5) The Psychodynaminc Model of Abnormality

This model was put forward by Sigmund Freud to explain abnormality. He stated that abnormality was caused by “unresolved conflicts” in the subconscioud which are then displaced by abnormal behaviour. He believed the personality is made of the conscious and the preconscious. The preconscious is then made of the Superego (the sense of right and … Continue reading

4) The Biological Model

The biological model is based upon the assumption that abnormality is due to biological imperfections in the body. There are 4 main biological differences that can cause an abnormality, genetic inheritance, chemical imbalance, brain injury and viral infections. Genetic inheritance This is the genes we inherited at birth. They can sometimes be faulty, causing abnormalities. We have used … Continue reading

3) Definition of Abnormality – Deviation From Ideal Mental Health

Marie Jahoda introduced this definition of abnormality asking why, if we can see that someone is physically unhealthy, why can’t we do the same for mental health? Jahoda came up with a list of 6 criteria you need to meet in order to not be “abnormal”: – Self attitudes – Having high self-esteem and a personally … Continue reading

2) Definition of Abnormality – Failure to Function Adequately

One way of defining if someone is abnormal is by asking whether they can function (do the basic things needed in day-to-day life) to a reasonable standard. For example someone might be considered abnormal if they are so paranoid that they often can’t leave their homes, this means they aren’t functioning adequately so have an abnormality. … Continue reading