The DSM-IV is the 4th version of the ‘Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders’. It contains a list of mental health disorders, for example, Dementia, Asperger’s Disorder and Autism. From the DSM-IV a professional will aim to give a reliable and valid diagnosis of whether a patient is mentally ill, and if so, what are they suffering from?
According to the DSM-IV, In order for a person to be diagnosed as schizophrenic their symptoms must significantly reduce their ability in reality tests, and these symptoms but be present for six months.
The DSM-IV describes six different types of schizophrenia:
- “Paranoid schizophrenia – the patient suffers from delusions of persecution or grandeur =. Sufferers are not incoherent and do not display inappropriate emotion, but they are extremely formal and quite intense.”
- “Disorganised schizophrenia – marked indifference insensitivity to social surroundings. Characterised by silliness, incoherence, often disregard of personal hygiene.”
- “Catatonic schizophrenia – the individual is very energetic or agitated.
- “Undifferentiated schizophrenia – dustbin category, no consistent pattern of behaviour, not classified by other categories.”
- “Residual schizophrenia – absence of obvious symptoms, but individual displays odd behaviour, e.g. odd, magical, bizarre thinking, marked social isolation or withdrawal.”
The ICD-10 is a European version of the DCM-IV, except this is used for all illness, not just mental. Some psychologists argue that this is a weakness as it can’t specialise on mental illness as closely as the DSM-IV