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6) Inferential tests

After conducting research we must test whether the results we have found are ‘significant’. To do this we use several different tests, dependant on the type of data and experimental design. The four tests are Chi², Spearman rank coefficient, Mann-Whitney ‘U’ test or the Wilcoxon ‘T’ test. How to select which test to use There … Continue reading

5) Ethical issues in research

Ethical considerations in psychological research When conducting experiments with humans there are several strict guidelines researchers must follow: Deception – a participant must not feel like he has been deceived, this can be dealt with using consent or a debriefing Right to withdraw – The participant must know they can withdraw from the experiment at … Continue reading

4) The organisation of research

Research reports that are submitted to scientific journals tend to contain these 8 sections: Title – Outlines what you have investigated Abstract – This is a brief summary of the whole study, giving a short overview of what all the other sections will later cover. Similar to an APFC. This will be written at the end but … Continue reading

3) The role of peer review

The most common way of validating new knowledge is peer reviewing. Peers are professionals in the same field as the psychologist or scientists whose work is being reviewed. The Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology (2002) said that peer reviews serve 3 main purposes: 1)      Allocation of research funding – Research is paid for by … Continue reading

2) What is Science?

What is a science? ‘Science’ is finding out more about the world, through observation and testing. There are several key features of a science, and without all these something cannot be considered scientific: Empiricism – Information is based upon research and findings. Objectivity – Scientists should remove their opinions and beliefs from the research, so … Continue reading

1) Research Methods Course Outline

1) The application of scientific method in psychology The major features of science, including replicability, objectivity, theory construction, hypothesis testing, the use of empirical methods  Validating new knowledge and the role of peer review 2)  Designing psychological investigations Selection and application of appropriate research methods Implications of sampling strategies, for example, bias and generalising  Issues of … Continue reading

9) Explanation of the attraction to celebrity – Evolutionary Explanations

Attraction to creativity Humans have an innate love of novelty and creativity, so when females came to choosing mates they looked for ever more creativity in men. In the 21st century this love of creativity still exists, but now we look for creativity in talents such as music, art and humour. This can explain why … Continue reading

8) Explanation of the attraction to celebrity – Social Psychological Explanations

The absorption-addiction Model This model, put forward by McCutcheon, says people seek parasocial relationships with celebrities to fill the dissatisfaction they feel in their own lives. For example, someone might feel like they haven’t achieved much in their lives, so by becoming fanatical about a ‘successful’ celebrity, the fan ‘absorbs’ some of the success. McCutcheon … Continue reading

7) The effect of computers

Computers are a huge part of modern society and we are spending more and more time on them, but are they harmful Addiction One of the biggest problems with computers is they can be addicitive. Giles (2003) suggests that heavy internet users show signs of addiction. However, although some may be ‘Internet dependent’ with more than 38 … Continue reading

7) The effects of video games

Video games are massively popular, Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 3 made £490m in its first five days on sale, but do video games have a negative effect, and if so, why? Explanations of the video games and aggression link Desensitization – Funk said that people who are frequently exposed to violent video games become … Continue reading