Kobasa and Maddi said some people have a “hardy personality”.
If someone has high Hardiness they have a strong defence against the negative effects of stress.
Key features of this personality include being high in control, commitment and challenge.
Control: Hardy people see themselves as being in control of their lives rather than being controlled by other things
Commitment: Hardy people have a strong sense of purpose
Challenge: Life challenges are seen as something they want to overcome rather than a stress
AIM – To test any link between a hardy personality and stress levels
PROCEDURE – 800 business executives’ stress levels were tested using Holmes and Rahe’s SRRS and hardiness was also assessed using a hardiness test
FINDINGS – 150 of the executives had high levels of stress. Those with low levels of illness (and therefore stress) were more likely to have scored high on the Hardy Personality test.
CONCLUSION – Having a Hardy personality can reduce the levels of stress
Maddi et al
Measured the hardiness in employees of a company that was firing a lot of people (highly stressful time). They found that 2/3s suffered stress related illness that year, but 1/3 thrived. This could be due to a hardy personality of 1/3.
Negative Affectivity (NA) – Individuals with high NA might think about failure and negative aspects of their personality more, so are more likely to report problems that Kobasa and Maddi reported as low hardiness or stress.